|Independent suspension||Dependent suspension|
H arm + link (2 link)
Guided trailing arm / Central link
Double wishbone / SLA
SLA (Short-Long Arm)
McPherson strut (FR)
McPherson strut (RR)
A driven solid axle is being called a live axle.
The rubber element in the shaft axle bearing point has cut-outs to achieve the longitudinal elasticity necessary for comfort reasons; the same is true for the front bearings of the two longitudinal trailing links. The middle bearing point is also the body roll axis.
Torque control is by rubber bushed tie-rods between the differential housing and a subframe that can float longitudinally in rubber mountings. The compliance of the tie-rod bushings is the controlling parameter as regards transfer of vibration forces originating from engine torque variation, propeller shaft unbalance and universal joints.